The aim of the study was to identify biological specimens from diverse vertebrate animals by extracting and amplifying DNA from 44 different animal species covering the 5 major vertebrate groups (i.e.  |  HHS He WQ, Xiong YQ, Ge J, Chen YX, Chen XJ, Zhong XS, Ou ZJ, Gao YH, Cheng MJ, Mo Y, Wen YQ, Qiu M, Huo ST, Chen SW, Zheng XY, He H, Li YZ, You FF, Zhang MY, Chen Q. BMC Vet Res. 2012;830:321-9. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-461-2_22. This produces a fragment of 486 bp in size which can be sequenced using standard technologies. USA.gov. Ewart KM, Frankham GJ, McEwing R, Webster LMI, Ciavaglia SA, Linacre AMT, The DT, Ovouthan K, Johnson RN. There are different rates of change in different gene regions. This chapter details a robust DNA technique using part of the cytochrome b gene on the mitochondrial genome that will work on poor-quality samples such as powdered horn. 2020 Nov;57(11):4286-4292. doi: 10.1007/s13197-020-04641-w. Epub 2020 Jul 18.  |  See also cellular respiration. 51, Issue. Soman M, Paul RJ, Antony M, Padinjarattath Sasidharan S. J Food Sci Technol. The vertebrate prepronociceptin gene (PNOC) was also tested in this field. PCR-based screening and phylogenetic analysis of rat pegivirus (RPgV) carried by rodents in China. Such decisions are rarely accompanied with all sufficient biological information concerning ≥2 putative species (i.e., sympa… 2009 Mar;3(2):67-73. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2008.10.005. This chapter details a robust DNA technique using part of the cytochrome b gene on the mitochondrial genome that will work on poor quality samples such as powdered horn or ivory products including statues and carvings. Cytochrome b is one of 11 components of a group of proteins called complex III. To date, studies on host preferences and blood meal identification have been conducted for Culicoides species using molecular-based methods such as PCR techniques to amplify only a fragment from universal vertebrate mitochondrial genes such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit I or cytochrome b (Cyt b). Many large mammalian species are on the verge of extinction in part because of the trade in their skin, bone, horn, or body parts for supposed medicinal purposes. Methods Mol Biol. In this study, we present the results of the analysis of a 127 bp long fragment of MT-CYB, amplified using universal primers, variable enough to be used for species identification and discrimination, even in highly degraded animal samples. Epub 2010 Jun 5. The identification of elephant ivory evidences of illegal trade with mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and hypervariable D-loop region. Epub 2020 Jul 24. Cytochrome b gene was amplified by multiplex PCR using a common forward primer. We developed a SYBR Green real-time PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism assay (cytb-qPCR) targeting the cytochrome b gene of the four major human Plasmodium species (P. 2017 Jan 12;12(1):e0167915. Species Determination: The Role and Use of the Cytochrome b Gene. Epub 2017 Oct 7. DNA typing in wildlife crime: recent developments in species identification. Direct sequencing of the PCR products allows comparison of the DNA sequence at this locus to those already described on the EMBL DNA database. Cytochrome b is commonly used as a region of mitochondrial DNA for determining phylogenetic relationships between organisms, due to its sequence variability. Identification of the species present is required to determine that the trade is illegal and contrary to national legislation. 2020 Aug 25;14(8):e0008573. NLM Novel Bartonella Species in Insectivorous Bats, Northern China. A cytochrome b ( cytb ) gene quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was developed to diagnose malaria in travelers. Han HJ, Wen HL, Liu JW, Qin XR, Zhao M, Wang LJ, Luo LM, Zhou CM, Zhu YL, Qi R, Li WQ, Yu H, Yu XJ. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Virus Genes. Species determination: the role and use of the cytochrome b gene. DNA typing in wildlife crime: recent developments in species identification. The cyt b gene could have been used for both positive diagnosis and species identification. In this study, we discuss the extent of the use of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for species identification, comparing external morphology identification with a molecular phylogenetic classification based on this marker, under the light of current bat systematics. The objective of this study was to employ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis using species specific primer (SSP) targeting on wild boar mitochondrial cytochrome-b (CYTBWB2-wb) gene for the identification of WBM in a meatball. 12, p. 4060. Han HJ, Liu JW, Wen HL, Qin XR, Zhao M, Wang LJ, Zhou CM, Qi R, Yu H, Yu XJ. NIH The cytochrome b gene has been used in numerous studies of phylogenetic relationships within mammals, and it is the gene for which the most sequence information from different mammalian species is available (Irwin, Kocher, and Wilson 1991 ; Meyer 1994 ; Johns and Avise 1998 ). Epub 2016 Mar 15. phylogenetic studies (Md-Zain et al., 2008, 2010a,b; Lim et al., 2010).  |  Detection of novel adenoviruses in fecal specimens from rodents and shrews in southern China. Han HJ, Wen HL, Zhao L, Liu JW, Luo LM, Zhou CM, Qin XR, Zhu YL, Zheng XX, Yu XJ. The Bayesian approach in Multidivtime simultaneously estimates the rate and age for each node of a given tree, assuming a prior distribution of evolutionary rates along branches, and, optionally, constraints on the age of certain internal nodes. mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes). Lee JC, Tsai LC, Liao SP, Linacre A, Hsieh HM. in R. norvegicus has no similarity with the cytochrome b gene from six other species, so it can be used as molecular markers to detect the presence of rat meat contamination in the processed of meat products. Species determination by analysis of the cytochrome b gene. A prerequisite for reliable detection of low-density Plasmodium infections in malaria pre-elimination settings is the availability of ultra-sensitive and high-throughput molecular tools. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. By mixing 7 backward primers in the appropriate ratios species-specific DNA fragments could Epub 2017 Oct 5. A nuclear DNA-based species determination and DNA quantification assay for common poultry species. 2018 Jan;163(1):73-88. doi: 10.1007/s00705-017-3570-3. Analyses of the data should lead to confident species identification. J Vet Med Sci. This chapter details a robust DNA technique using part of the cytochrome b gene on the mitochondrial genome that will work on poor quality samples such as powdered horn or ivory products including statues and carvings. Trp-142 is a highly conserved residue of the cytochrome b subunit in the bc 1 complexes. Viral metagenomics of six bat species in close contact with humans in southern China. Emerg Infect Dis. Karunanayake L, Gamage CD, Gunasekara CP, De Silva S, Izumiya H, Morita M, Muthusinghe DS, Yoshimatsu K, Niloofa R, Karunanayake P, Uluwattage W, Ohnishi M, Koizumi N. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. Identification of the species present is required to determine that the trade is illegal and contrary to national legislation. Asini Corii Collas (ACC; donkey glue) is a crude drug used to promote hematopoiesis and arrest bleeding. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Johns and Avise (1998) employed approximately 2000 cytochrome b gene sequences from GenBank to calculate and compare levels of genetic distance between sister species, congeneric species, and confamilial genera within and across the major vertebrate taxonomic classes. The resulting sequences are then aligned to voucher specimens or sequences on reliable databases. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Identification of the species present is required to determine that the trade is illegal and contrary to national legislation. Keywords: Multiplex PCR was used to screen for DNA of 10 mammalian species with species-specific primers that anneal to regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), especially the gene for cytochrome b (MT-CYB), has been found to be highly informative for species identification. Amplification of part of the cytochrome b gene using universal primers produces a fragment of approx 486 bp in size. The sequence variability of cytochrome b makes it most useful for the comparison of species in the same genus or the same family. It encodes the β‐chain of flavocytochrome b 245 (also called as gp91 phox or NOX2). doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008573. 2016 Jun;52(3):417-21. doi: 10.1007/s11262-016-1315-0. Cytochrome c is the most stable and abundant member of the class, and it has been the most thoroughly studied. Capillary electrophoresis of mtDNA cytochrome b gene sequences for animal species identification. 2017 Dec;64(8):636-646. doi: 10.1111/zph.12358. The MT-CYB gene provides instructions for making a protein called cytochrome b. Novel coronaviruses, astroviruses, adenoviruses and circoviruses in insectivorous bats from northern China. There are many methods for amplifying sequences common to multiple species using universal primers, such as the amplification of mitochondrial rDNA [9, 10], cytochrome b [11, 12], cytochrome oxidase I [13, 14], myoglobin , or the D-loop region [16,17,18,19,20] and subsequent identification using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Insectivorous Bats, China, 2015. An appropriate DNA extraction technique is required to obtain at least 1 ng of DNA from which the amplification of part of the cytochrome b gene using universal primers is performed.  |  2020 Oct 20;82(10):1464-1471. doi: 10.1292/jvms.19-0530. eCollection 2017. Specific PCR, amplifying a fragment of the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome b gene, are developed for discrimination of chicken, turkey, pig, cow and sheep. Methods Mol Biol. Epub 2017 Apr 1. Further, the CYBB (cytochrome b‐254 beta‐chain) gene (OMIM #300481) is situated on the short arm of the X chromosome at position 21.1, containing 13 exons and spanning 30 kb. The cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene, in particular, has been used in the investigation of systematic relationships among mammals and is suitable for bovid species. Would you like email updates of new search results? Identification of the species is required to determine that a crime has been committed. An internationally standardized species identification test for use on suspected seized rhinoceros horn in the illegal wildlife trade. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2010 Sep;6(3):195-206. doi: 10.1007/s12024-010-9168-7. Recent estimates of the number of species range from 10 to 100 million (Wilson 1998). However, handling of amplified DNA for diagnosis and identification increased the risk of carryover and, therefore, the risk of false-positive results. The presence of DNA from one or more species not declared on the label was identified in all 21 diets: cow (Bos taurus), pig (Sus scrofa), sheep (Ovis sp. Epub 2012 Jul 27. The cytochrome b (cyt b) gene is one of the most commonly used genetic loci, applied in both taxonomy and forensic science, for the purpose of species identification. Abstract. To study the importance of this residue in the quinol oxidation catalyzed by the bc 1 complex, we characterized four yeast mutants with arginine, lysine, threonine, and serine at position 142. For species identification using bovine fecal samples, cytochrome b fragment between positions 867 and 1140 was found to contain species diagnostic sites, which distinguishes the four species encountered in the region: B. gaurus, B. indicus, B. javanicus and B. taurus. Even if sequences for many species are … The illegal trade in ivory and rhino horn has led to a catastrophic decline in elephant and rhino populations worldwide. To get sufficiently accurate estimates, we used only species for which the complete cytochrome b was available (data set 1, 89 species). Cytochrome, any of a group of hemoprotein cell components that, by readily undergoing reduction and oxidation (gain and loss of electrons) with the aid of enzymes, serve a vital function in the transfer of energy within cells. First, manual and automated DNA extractions were compared and automated DNA extraction of 400 μl of blood was found to be more efficient. 2020 Oct 31;16(1):413. doi: 10.1186/s12917-020-02619-6. Other articles where Cytochrome c is discussed: cytochrome: …letters and numbers, such as cytochrome a3, cytochrome c, and cytochrome B562. 2018 Jun;24(6):1123-1126. doi: 10.3201/eid2406.171585. 2013 Apr;20(3):174-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2012.06.014. HHS Han HJ, Wen HL, Zhao L, Liu JW, Luo LM, Zhou CM, Qin XR, Zhu YL, Liu MM, Qi R, Li WQ, Yu H, Yu XJ. It is considered to be most useful in determining relationships within families and genera. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Epub 2010 Jun 5. Species identification using the cytochrome b gene of commercial turtle shells. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a detection method of WBM contamination. 2018 May 29;11(1):317. doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-2902-9. 2010 Sep;6(3):195-206. doi: 10.1007/s12024-010-9168-7. Abstract. PLoS One. Multiplex PCR, in which many primers were used together for amplification of multiple target regions, is a hopeful technique for meat species identification. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. 2016;1420:287-96. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3597-0_20. Many large mammalian species are on the verge of extinction in part because of the trade in their skin, bone, horn, or body parts for supposed medicinal purposes. Because adulteration of the drug with substances from other animals such as horses, cattle, and pigs has been found, we examined PCR methods based on the sequence of the cytochrome bgene for source species identification.  |  Species determination by analysis of the cytochrome b gene. The results of these analyses parallel and reinforce some of the principal trends in genetic distance estimates derived from … Would you like email updates of new search results? Zoonoses Public Health. Lee EJ, Lee YH, Moon SH, Kim NY, Kim SH, Yang MS, Choi DH, Han MS. J Forensic Leg Med.  |  Epub 2008 Nov 28. The use of molecular markers can enhance species identification, and acquires particular relevance in capture-release studies. The cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been used in species identification,,,, and in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. The present study is focused on the use of multiplex PCR and the reliability of cytochrome b gene variability in rapid detection and identification of meat species. ), goat (Capra hircus) and bison (Bison bison). Species identification was carried out by nucleotide sequence analysis of the cytochrome b (cytb) gene. Babesia vesperuginis in insectivorous bats from China. Hemoproteins are proteins linked to a nonprotein, iron-bearing component. Forensic Sci Int Genet. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. This is due to the higher variation of the Cyt b gene as compared to We describe protocols using a direct sequencing method based on 212−274-bp diagnostic sequences derived from species-specific mitochondria DNA cytochrome b, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequences which can efficiently be applied to unambiguously determine even closely related fish species in processed food products labeled “anchovy”. NIH Fast-evolving regions such as the "D-loop" might be used for studying closely related species while slowly-evolving regions such as cytochrome b (CYTB) and cytochrome oxidase I (COX1) might be used for distantly related species. This protein plays a key role in structures called mitochondria, which convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Meat samples from cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, chicken and horse were utilized for molecular analysis of each species as per standard method. The cytochrome complex, or cyt c, is a small hemeprotein found loosely associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.It belongs to the cytochrome c family of proteins and plays a major role in cell apoptosis. The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene has been used in phylogenetic as well as in forensic investigations [10–12] and has been shown in a variety of studies to be a very useful DNA-region for species determination [13–18] However, before applicable for routine analysis, species-specific diagnostic polymorphisms or mutations must be determined. USA.gov. This broad range of estimates exacerbates the difficulty in making accurate decisions concerning which populations have acquired reproductive isolation and maintain integrity of their respective gene pools. cytochrome b gene variability. For sex determination, primers were initially tested on DNA obtained from blood. Parasit Vectors. eCollection 2020 Aug. Zheng XY, Qiu M, Guan WJ, Li JM, Chen SW, Cheng MJ, Huo ST, Chen Z, Wu Y, Jiang LN, Chen Q. Arch Virol. Composition of gut and oropharynx bacterial communities in Rattus norvegicus and Suncus murinus in China. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! circulating in Sri Lanka. Application of Mitochondrial DNA Technologies in Wildlife Investigation - Species Identification. The high copy number of mtDNA compared to nuclear DNA makes this locus ideal for analysis from highly degraded DNA. These iconic high profile species are one part of the illegal trade in wildlife products that threatens these species and the ecological balance in the habitats in which they live. An appropriate deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction technique is required to obtain at least 10 ng of DNA. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. The results obtained in many of the phylogenetic studies in which this gene has been use… The species is the primary unit of concern in biodiversity, conservation, and other biological issues. Zheng XY, Qiu M, Ke XM, Guan WJ, Li JM, Huo ST, Chen SW, Zhong XS, Zhou W, Xiong YQ, Ge J, Chen Q. Detecting mislabelling in meat products using PCR-FINS. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! This chapter details a robust DNA technique using part of the cytochrome b gene on the mitochondrial genome that will work on poor quality samples such as powdered horn or ivory products including statues and carvings. NLM 2018 Jan;32:33-39. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2017.10.003. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167915. Application of Mitochondrial DNA Technologies in Wildlife Investigation - Species Identification. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Identification of the species present is required to determine that the trade is illegal and contrary to national legislation. Cytochrome c is highly water-soluble, unlike other cytochromes, and is an essential component of the electron transport chain, where it carries one electron. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Identification of the species is required to determine that a crime has been committed. CITES; Cytochrome b; DNA; Mitochondria; Species identification; Wildlife. Multilocus sequence typing reveals diverse known and novel genotypes of Leptospira spp. Oropharynx bacterial communities in Rattus norvegicus and Suncus murinus in China, 2015 Antony M, Sasidharan! 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