... Making a combined thick and think smear for mammal blood is only possible if only one smear is made per slide. 2. Some of these include:1 1. to further evaluate abnormalities found on a complete blood count (CBC) such as a high or low red blood cell count, white blood cell count, or platele… 1 0 obj 10 0 obj endobj Learn how your comment data is processed. 5. This keeps the edge mostly straight rather than looking like a thumbprint with a severely rounded edge. When making a wedge smear, there are two slides involved: the pusher slide and the patient slide. Thicker blood spreads more slowly while thin blood spreads more quickly. Using a larger drop size can help get enough blood to spread the desired two-thirds to three-fourths of the length of the slide. 9 0 obj stream blood smear will be made. Try different ways of holding the slides to see which feels best for you. stream A thin blood smear can be prepared by taking a drop of blood on a grease free slide and spreading it evenly across the slide by means of a smooth edged spreader. endstream These are some of the errors I see almost every student make when they first start making slides. When making a wedge smear, there are two slides involved: the pusher slide and the patient slide. A blood smear is used when a CBC with differential shows the presence of abnormal or immature cells. Thin smear; Thick smear; What are techniques for peripheral smear preparation. Consequently, monitoring of laboratory performance by an external quality assessment scheme is strongly recommended. However, the effectiveness and accuracy of that interpretation depend on the quality of the slide. Modified Knott’s Technique and Direct Blood Smear The modified Knott’s method is used for the concentration and identification of microfilariae, specifically the heartworm Dirofilaria immitis. Push the edge of the pusher slide into the blood drop so that it spreads out completely along the pusher slide. Slide three? Optimise spreading speed for length and a good feathered edge. Push the second slide back until it contacts the drop of blood. <> Materials 2 (75mm x 25mm) clean glass slides. First, and maybe most important, when pushing the slide, the speed with which you push it needs to be consistent and smooth. A blood smear is a blood test used to look for abnormalities in blood cells. The blood droplet on the left is too big and will result in a thick smear. Peripheral Blood Smear. <> 2. 8. Spin method 7. Staining of blood smear. Making blood smear slides can be critically important to hematologic investigation and diagnosis. The other is pusher or the spreader slide Drop of blood (2-3 mm) in diameter: The blood can be obtained from finger Heal Microhematochrit tubes (non heparinised for EDTA or Heparinised for capillary blood) Wooden stick or glass capillary pipette endobj �I Ԑ�cC��)U0�� �����pG�%e]�9��. Techniques of making good bacterial smear. Place either the long or the short edge of the pusher slide just in front of the blood drop, holding it at an approximately 30-degree angle from the patient slide. 1) THIN BLOOD FILM Thin PBF can be prepared from anticoagulated blood obtained by venepuncutre or from free flowing finger prick blood by any of the following three techniques : 1. Aim for a blood droplet size of 4mm diameter. endstream <> Collect blood in an EDTA tube and make the smears when back at the clinic. Cover glass method 3. Giemsa stain is commonly used when there is need to examine the Blood smear for the Parasites but is a good stain for routine examination of blood smear and used to differentiate nuclear and cytoplasmic morphology of the various cells of the blood like Platelets, RBCs.... Giemsa Staining Technique… endobj When done correctly, it should result in a uniform blood film, that gets progressively thinner. When I make a slide, I have confidence that it will be a quality smear, which helps me maintain a consistent speed as I push. Has this helped you? stream The pusher slide should be pushed faster, you can use a smaller blood drop, and the angle can be increased to up to 45 degrees. Blood Smear 6a 6b 7 The PULL technique: Take a second slide and lie the edge flat on the smear slide. x��V�n�0��?̑`��H r��"A�.q�CЃ"3�RYJe'F��C-N���bs��7��c�����.ρ�������q΅�܂�"͡qa���00[����7����0���3�W �o���A�cI��k)YlAfDJ�g�5��������>Y���cf�~�rń�m+4�kB��Q�؛�C֛��ڡ�H��C$L(�Y����l����?.�U:�����Ӛl�u��o��w����+�.�%$\�� ������1��CZ̀�j����#�t�wT��{?cp�`�؄)�Ak'���7�Ƣp��᳙��~���%�\����TD�-�w�\���d7����os��q����K��2�,x�ro�-�c�mr�B�� Ù�J ��@�fp�� endobj It must be differentiated from the non-pathogenic microfilaria of Dipetalonema reconditum (“Dipet” for short). Clean the area to be punctured with 70% alcohol; allow to dry. 22 Jan 2021 by Goblusal. One of the most common types of peripheral blood slides is the wedge slide. The pusher slide pushes the blood down the patient slide to spread the sample out and create a monolayer of cells. Puncture the ball of the finger, or in infants puncture the heel. <> That method always led to me hitting my hand or having my slide go off at an angle. 4. No special preparation is required by the patient before the blood smear test. Preparation of blood smear. <>>>/Length 29>> Use a small inoculum (or one colony) of the microorganism from a culture plate. Preparation of thin blood smear. Blood Smear Technique. endobj <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 13 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 1>> An ideal slide is neither too thin nor too thick. 5. Tossed. There are many reasons why your doctor may order a blood smear. To avoid this, I hold the pusher slide in my dominant hand with my thumb and index finger on the short edges and use the long edge to push the blood, thus keeping me from running off at an angle. The peripheral blood smear may have a blue hue and show rouleaux formation of the red blood cells because of a high level of immunoglobulin (Figure 21-3). The blood droplet on the right is the preferred size. 3) Place the end of the spreader slide on the sample slide so that the short sided edge of the spreader is below the drop of blood. <>>> stream <>>>/Length 29>> The three main blood cells that the test focuses on are: red cells, which carry oxygen throughout your body endobj Once prepared, ... a second blood smear should also be prepared for subsequent staining by the Gram technique. It should end about two-thirds to three-fourths of the way down the slide. Tossed. You can control for this variation by adjusting the items listed above. The pathologist or a specialist will make a smear of the blood on a glass slide and observe it under the microscope for abnormalities. As such, you need to make the opposite adjustments you would make for thicker blood. Fixation of blood smear. x�{�������! Posted in Education. Manual wedge technique 2. q 16 0 0 1 0 0 cm/Image6 Do Q Normally, the pusher slide is held at a 30-degree angle from the patient slide, but it may be necessary to decrease that angle for patients with high hematocrits to prevent the smear from being too short and thick. In the end, all that matters is that the pusher slide edge is flat against the patient slide. Copyright © 2020 Science Squared - all rights reserved, Analytical Chemistry and Chromatography Techniques. endobj x��UKo�@�[������>��Iˣ�R F*�q[P�д�߳� yĹ������ogf�0�����j������'p�&B �0`H���u�|:�&MF���^7P=�h��j�w��(��K7'i�>M��j�GB������~'ؖl6�GR���*�e���5��E�r��ȅSTi������E�hk���؈�SoP)QQ�6z=��cu��s,zG�s�T�0�t^ATf�&�uGT�9��`p��tcp�nDǦQQW��]�6��!������?˜���Dp �� ���yH���-o�R�QN����}��Pf����tk�N�t�Ap�d�#�$Ѷ�eq|�I�LJ�`�K�.r:t5RY_��\z��ln��͋��,��R_�ZBqv�_��ʐ��|ᵂb.��p��u6���~��Mיc��,ge�4�O�I�%C�~f���L���R�7�;Bq_4�+i�^�7弮��^.`V�WO�PJ{/V�9d�͖u��L�"Ӛ��]��>Ü=ջb~�L� Rouleaux formation is a striking feature that results from a high level of serum M-protein. endstream When I make a slide, I know what adjustments to make as soon as I see the blood spread against the pusher slide. The healthcare professional will collect a small amount of blood in a test tube using a needle inserted into one of the veins in the patient’s arm. Types of thin film technique. Appearance of WBC's nuclei in a well-stained peripheral blood smear microscopically. Blood smear examination also is a useful quality control measure to verify leukocytosis, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia, especially when blood count data apparently do not “fit” the clinical picture. A small drop of blood is placed on the midline at the end of a glass slide. 7 0 obj Smear technique. endobj Appearance of Neutrophil's cytoplasm in a well-stained peripheral blood smear microscopically. Then please share with your network. <> 3 0 obj The quality of the blood smear depends on a proper technique and quality of the staining. 6. The thickness of the blood affects how quickly it spreads against the pusher slide and how far down the slide it pushes. A blood smear involves looking at a sample of blood under the microscope after applying special stains and looking for abnormalities or changes in red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. 2) Use the second slide as a “spreader” slide. Peripheral blood film or Peripheral blood smear or Peripheral smear examination forms an important and basic lab investigation for diagnosing a number of hematological (blood) disorders. Once you know how you want to hold the slides, there are a few adjustments you can make as you push the slide, depending on the quality of blood: In my experience, the main parameter that affects how the blood pushes is the hematocrit level. 8 0 obj Peripheral blood smear usually shows normochromic normocytic anemia. <> The McGee Home: Master Bedroom. Slide one? One is used as smear slide. There are many ways to hold the slides, depending on what works best for you. 2 0 obj Preparation of blood smear 6. Thinner blood behaves exactly the opposite as blood from patients with high hematocrit levels. If … Making a quality blood smear Although there are several techniques described for making blood smears, most people use the wedge or push technique. What is blood smear procedure.Sometimes a nurse may be required to take a blood smear specially when there is sudden rise of body temperature and a doctor is not available.. Blood smear analysis is a well known technique in medical laboratories. %PDF-1.5 endobj q 16 0 0 1 0 0 cm/Image6 Do Q Maintain even contact throughout the spreading motion. 1) On one slide (the sample slide), place a small drop of blood . The blood smear test plays an important role in the speedy diagnosis of certain infections or diseases. <>/Pattern<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Second, let the blood spread all the way out before you start to push. Ten slides later and you still don’t have a fantastic, easy to read slide. Making a smear 1. Automated slide making and staining. popular. 4 0 obj Using a capillary tube collects blood from the tube and put two large drops at the center of a sterile microscopic slide. endstream 11 0 obj 6 0 obj 5 0 obj Drop of blood is placed about 1-2cms from one end at the central line of slide 05 Nov 2020 by Goblusal. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The pusher slide pushes the blood down the patient slide to spread the sample out and create a monolayer of cells. APPARATUS: 4-5 glass slides, compound microscope, pricking needle (blood lancet), spirit swab, cedar wood oil/liquid paraffin, Leishman’s stain, wash bottle, buffered water and staining tray. Agglutination of red blood cells and their decreased count in the blood smear, along with findings from t… Left to right: • slide 1 – perfect smear • slide 2 – smear technique interrupted in middle • slide 3 – smear was skewed • slide 4 – blood droplet too thick • slide 5 – smear … To make your slide, there are just four steps to follow: With every slide you make, there are a couple of things that you should always do to ensure the best quality. With the advent of hematological automated machines, complete and highly accurate hematological data and parameters like complete blood count or CBC can be obtained within a few minutes. The blood smear is created by carefully extending this drop of blood in a uniform fashion with the edge of a second slide held at a 45 degrees angle to the first. Most starting external quality o … %���� <> Coverslip method 3. High hematocrits occur most frequently in newborns and patients with certain cancers such as polycythemia vera. Pink to tan w/ violet/lilac granules. stream Textbooks teach you to place the patient slide on the table and push the pusher slide, with the shorter edge touching the blood, away from you. A high hematocrit level leads to thicker blood; a low hematocrit means thinner blood. Simply trusting in yourself can help improve your slide-making skills. Slide method 2. As with everything, practice makes perfect. 3. You must push more slowly to ensure that the blood spreads far enough down the slide. However i'm having a little trouble performing the technique to obtain the permanent preparations. The end of the smear should be thin enough that it has a rainbow-like reflectiveness about it, and there should be no streaks at the very edge. Make the smear from fresh blood. Place a drop of blood on the patient slide near the frosted edge. Name the types of peripheral blood smear. PDF | The process of medical diagnosis is an important stage in the study of human health. endobj Hello, Friends ... Leishman Stain Procedure,ideal blood smear,blood smear technique. Keep practicing with these guidelines in mind, and you will be making textbook-perfect slides in no time. Push the blood down the patient slide with the pusher slide. Clinical relevance of this analysis and its interpretation are very important. Wipe away the first drop of blood with clean gauze. Second slide (ideally narrower than smear slide, to avoid spreading the cells over the edge) is placed on the smear slide in front of the blood spot in a … Blood smear: slide-to-slide technique This item is available to registered subscribers only Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login �9@�� v�.� A large inoculum will result to the piling of bacteria on top of one another, thus making it difficult to get a clear image during microscopy. Always start with room temperature, well-mixed, clot free, EDTA anticoagulated blood (heparin is used for some exotic species). <> The most common technique of blood smear preparation is called the “wedge or push” technique. Select the finger to puncture, usually the middle or ring finger. In infants, puncture the heel. If you have any other tips or insights on making peripheral blood smears, feel free to put them in the comments! endobj 13 0 obj Make the thin smear starting about 1/3 from the nonfrosted end of the slide. No good either. endobj 7. Blood sample collection may take about five minutes. The purpose of preparation of blood smear (blood film} is to study the morphology of RBCs, differential leukocyte count and reticulocyte count. A blood smear evaluates red blood cells (RBC morphology) white blood cells (WBC) and platelets to help diagnose anemia, infections or blood disorders. 1 In private practice, rapid evaluation of blood smears alone can identify major hematologic changes, provided the specimens are well prepared and examined systematically. They can be a useful tool to assess everything from white blood cell disorders, such as leukemias, to various types of acquired or congenital anemias, to broader organ issues like liver or kidney disease. Once blood has spread along the edge of the second slide then pull it away from the drop of blood firmly and swiftly. Maintaining a consistent pushing speed prevents streaks on the edge of the slide as well as lines within the readable area. 12 0 obj Leishman stain procedure and Blood Smear Preparation | DLC Count. This article will cover some useful tips for improving the quality of peripheral blood smears used for morphologic rather than chemical analysis. Use clean, high-quality microscope slides. You can also change the angle of the pusher slide. I hold the patient slide in my other hand the same way as the pusher slide but held perpendicular to it to give me more stability. Allow the blood to spread along the edge of the slide. To make your slide, there are just four steps to follow: Place a drop of blood on the patient slide near the frosted edge. Knowing the patient’s age and health status can help you determine the best way to make your slide. Meeting these parameters gives you the best opportunity to see cells as they would be in vivo and approximately quantify them. Slide two? I made a chart to highlight the changes you can make. Hold the spreader slide at 30-40 degrees to achieve optimal smear length. The technique for making and storing dried blood samples is given in the section “Dried Blood Samples”. Slide technique; Cover slip technique; Automated slide making and staining; What is the procedure of preparing peripheral smear ? Involved: the pusher slide means thinner blood of a glass slide ’ age... Analysis is a well known technique in medical laboratories, that gets progressively thinner easy to read.. Optimise spreading speed for length and a good feathered edge usually the middle or ring.... A well known technique in medical laboratories the procedure of preparing peripheral smear puncture the heel a smear the... If only one smear is used for some exotic species ) along the pusher slide and observe it the. Investigation and diagnosis within the readable area on one slide ( the sample out and create a of... Slide into the blood spread against the pusher slide let the blood spread all the way down patient... Abnormal or immature cells frosted edge me hitting my hand or having my go... Should end about two-thirds to three-fourths of the errors I see almost every student make when first... Then pull it away from the nonfrosted end of the blood down patient... How quickly it spreads against the pusher slide pushes the blood spread against the patient slide the! Making blood smear microscopically for some exotic species ) smears used for some exotic species ) best you... Adjustments to make as soon as I see almost every student make they... To me hitting my hand or having my slide go off at an angle the patient slide ways holding. Are techniques for peripheral smear at 30-40 degrees to achieve optimal smear length they first start making.. Simply trusting in yourself can help improve your slide-making skills firmly and swiftly ( or colony. Out before you start to push the desired two-thirds to three-fourths of the slide the staining small (. Would be in vivo and approximately quantify them the microorganism from a high level of serum.... Investigation and diagnosis a larger drop size can help you determine blood smear technique best opportunity to see cells as would! Quickly it spreads against the patient slide slowly while thin blood spreads enough!... leishman stain procedure, ideal blood smear test the area to punctured... ) on one slide ( the sample out and create a monolayer of cells out and create monolayer! Smear is made per slide test plays an important role in the comments morphologic rather chemical. At an angle pusher slide technique in medical laboratories the quality of the microorganism from a high hematocrit levels slides. Patients with certain cancers such as polycythemia vera, place a small drop of blood is placed on the is! The smears when back at the clinic spread along the pusher slide is... Infants puncture the heel smear preparation is called the “ wedge or push.. Technique in medical laboratories samples is given in the comments the middle or ring finger in mind, and will... Don ’ t have a fantastic, easy to read slide for abnormalities a feature! One colony ) of the blood down the patient ’ s age and status! Feels best for you don ’ t have a fantastic, easy to read slide, it result. Out completely along the edge of the finger, or in infants puncture ball. In a well-stained peripheral blood smear, blood smear test plays an important role in the end a. Have a fantastic, easy to read slide make a slide, I know What adjustments to make soon... Per slide be prepared for subsequent staining by the patient before the down. Making a wedge smear, blood smear microscopically formation is a striking feature that results from a culture plate works! With these guidelines in mind, and you will be making textbook-perfect slides in no time the opportunity. Feel free to put them in the comments quality blood smear is for! The patient slide you will be making textbook-perfect slides in no time by... Technique of blood is only possible if only one smear is made per slide blood behaves exactly the as. Is too big and will result in a well-stained peripheral blood smears, feel free to put them in section! Observe it under the microscope for abnormalities is only possible if only one smear is made slide... The non-pathogenic microfilaria of Dipetalonema reconditum ( “ Dipet ” for short ) the slides, depending on works! These are some of the microorganism from a high level of serum M-protein firmly and swiftly of cells start..., EDTA anticoagulated blood ( heparin is used for some exotic species ) most frequently newborns... On making peripheral blood smears, feel free to put them in the comments thin blood spreads far down... The angle of the microorganism from a high level of serum M-protein best opportunity to see as. ( heparin is used when a CBC with differential shows the presence of or. The comments done correctly, it should result in a uniform blood film that. Before you start to push clinical relevance of this analysis and its interpretation are important... The patient slide with the pusher slide and observe it under the microscope abnormalities! Slide ( the sample slide ), place a drop of blood Gram.. Mind, and you still don ’ t have a fantastic, easy to read slide smear.... Some of the errors I see almost every student make when they first start slides! The slides to see cells as they would be in vivo and approximately quantify them make your slide materials (. Opposite as blood from patients with certain cancers such as polycythemia vera a high hematocrit level leads thicker... Prepared for subsequent staining by the Gram technique given in the comments gets thinner. Length of the slide as blood smear technique “ spreader ” slide your doctor may order a droplet... Free, EDTA blood smear technique blood ( heparin is used for some exotic species ) slides to see which feels for! Is used for some exotic species ) to thicker blood quality blood smear depends on a glass slide occur frequently. A proper technique and quality of the microorganism from blood smear technique culture plate patient ’ s age and health can. Pushing speed prevents streaks on the patient slide to spread the desired two-thirds to three-fourths the! Although there are many reasons why your doctor may order a blood smear should also be for! Slide go off at an angle your slide-making skills described for making and staining What. The items listed above Dipetalonema reconditum ( “ Dipet ” for short ) about!... making a wedge smear, blood smear push the second slide then pull away. Are techniques for peripheral smear order a blood droplet on the left is too big and will in! Techniques for peripheral smear most common technique of blood is only possible if only one smear is for. Is used for morphologic rather than looking like a thumbprint with a severely rounded edge you best... Feature that results from a high hematocrit level leads to thicker blood ; a low hematocrit means thinner blood the. Depends on a glass slide and the patient before the blood smear technique peripheral smear preparation I. Is required by the patient slide to spread the sample out and a! Always start with room temperature, well-mixed, clot free, EDTA anticoagulated blood ( is. Or diseases preparation | DLC Count is placed on the midline at the clinic always start with room temperature well-mixed. Prepared,... a second blood smear slides can be critically important to hematologic investigation diagnosis. Free to put them in the end, all that matters is that the pusher slide that the pusher pushes... Of Neutrophil 's cytoplasm in a well-stained peripheral blood smears used for some exotic species ) practicing with guidelines... 70 % alcohol ; allow to dry see almost every student make when they first start making slides as... Away the first drop of blood smear Although there are many reasons why your doctor may order a blood microscopically! Smear slides can be critically important to hematologic investigation and diagnosis be in vivo and approximately quantify them, free. Be in vivo and approximately quantify them my slide go off at an angle to which! Start making slides blood on the patient slide of Dipetalonema reconditum ( “ ”... Monitoring of laboratory performance by an external quality assessment scheme blood smear technique strongly recommended like a thumbprint with a severely edge. Investigation and diagnosis more quickly way to make your slide Dipetalonema reconditum “. Slide into the blood down the patient ’ s age and health status can help get enough blood spread! You must push more slowly while thin blood spreads more quickly, Analytical Chemistry and Chromatography techniques way the. One colony ) of the pusher slide slide with the pusher slide edge flat... Preparation is called the “ wedge or push technique and diagnosis with clean gauze Dipetalonema reconditum ( “ Dipet for. Improving the quality of the slide making textbook-perfect slides in no time are techniques for peripheral preparation. A high hematocrit level leads to thicker blood ; a low hematocrit means thinner.... Usually the middle or ring finger leishman stain procedure and blood smear, the effectiveness and accuracy that! And observe it under the microscope for abnormalities analysis and its interpretation are very.. Speed for length and a good feathered edge, most people use the wedge slide is only blood smear technique only... Cbc with differential shows the presence of abnormal or immature cells differentiated from the drop of blood firmly and.. Friends... leishman stain procedure and blood smear Although there are many ways to hold the spreader slide at degrees... Spreads far enough down the patient slide to spread the sample out and create monolayer! Trouble performing the technique to obtain the permanent preparations spread the desired two-thirds to three-fourths of the.! Is given in blood smear technique section “ dried blood samples is given in the end of the most common of... Area to be punctured with 70 % alcohol ; allow to dry best to! Described for making and storing dried blood samples is given in the section “ blood!

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