Cognitive Developm ent JFS 2. Cognitive Developm ent JFS 2. 0 Training studies can help distinguish the roles of nature, nurture, and culture (e.g., De Klerk et al. Deborah Bradley-Kramer. 225 dancers (71% female) were recruited through a community ballroom dance center and completed an online survey designed to measure their perceptions of the physical, cognitive, affective, and social benefits of modern, partnered dance styles (swing, Lindy Hop, and ballroom dancing). Considering the unprecedented growth of the older adult population and the projected increase in the prevalence of cognitive impairment, it is imperative to find effective strategies to improve or maintain cognitive function in older adults. Crossref. Classifying 3. Dance and Music in Venda Children's Cognitive Development, 1956-8 book. Researchers have discovered that language development starts as a fetus before a child is even born. Cognitive impairment is characterized by problems in thinking, memory, language, and judgment that are greater than cognitive changes in normal aging. Dance interventions varied in frequency (1–3×/week), time (35–60 minutes), duration (3–12 months) and type. Pages 22. eBook ISBN 9781315725574. 152 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<54AF8B4775B3F645AFAED8DCE633D3D0><959C78DB6723ED4D8682864BCCB879E2>]/Index[135 45]/Info 134 0 R/Length 90/Prev 365487/Root 136 0 R/Size 180/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream “We have become prisoners of our own age”: From a continuing care retirement community to a total institution in the midst of the COVID-19 outbreak, “Getting back to normality seems as big of a step as going into lockdown”: The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on People with Early-Middle Stage Dementia, The My Active and Healthy Aging ICT platform prevents quality of life decline in older adults: a randomised controlled study, https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, The Hachinski Ischemic Scale and cognition: the influence of ethnicity, The Abbreviated Mental Test: Its Use and Validity, The time trends of cognitive impairment incidence among older Chinese people in the community: based on the CLHLS cohorts from 1998 to 2014, Changing non-participation in epidemiological studies of older people: evidence from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study I and II. Imprint Psychology Press. 6 Ways Dance Classes Benefit Early Development in Kids. Dance and healthy, strong muscles . �#"�T��G:�>�_fSzq�5t������,_���ˬX�mU��l�˲2�f=0˛�ᐎ�`|I�"��,�6���?" Preschoolers want to learn how things work, and they learn best through play. We explored the effect of dance on cognitive function in older adults. Dance helps children mature physically, emotionally, socially, and cognitively. However, regardless of variance in abilities, the children always benefit in more ways than one. Edited By Gustav Jahoda, Ioan Lewis. Subgroup analyses did not suggest consistently greater effects in older adults with MCI. Music and Cognitive Development. Dance Education. It is also a form of movement that encourages a dancer to enhance their problem solving skills and speed. In this article. Varied exposure leads to language proficiency, spatial reasoning, and temporal reasoning. You do not currently have access to this article. Considering the unprecedented growth of the older adult population and the projected increase in the prevalence of cognitive impairment, it is imperative to find effective strategies to improve or maintain cognitive function in older adults. Even though dance is a form of exercise, it does not seem or feel like exercise for kids. Dancing … Swiss Psychologist , worked for - Several decades on understanding children’s cognitive development - Most widely known for his theory of Cognitive Development - Published his first paper at the early age of 10 - Earned his Doctorate in Natural Science at the age of 21 Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Follow-up services for delirium after COVID-19—where now? Teaching the arts can improve social and cognitive development in children. Research undertaken by a team of researchers in the 1990s showed that the exposure to music from early childhood onwards helps children to speak more clearly, develop a larger vocabulary, and strengthen social and emotional skills Co-occurring mental health symptoms and cognitive processes in trauma-exposed ASD adults. provided vehicles for cognitive development that promoted vocabulary development, reasoning, comparing/ contrasting, abstraction, integration of concepts, and conceptual development. Why Every Child Should Study Dance. we reviewed 3,997 records and included 11 studies (N = 1,412 participants). Culture is indicated when cognitive development varies with longer-term features of the environment: features that may not be present when a particular individual is developing or that can be acquired only via the kinds of social learning known as cultural learning. Allow the child to explore and express through paintings, songs, and dance. Fostering your child’s creativity during the early stages of their childhood is extremely important to the development of their cognitive abilities. In fact, studies have shown that … And, in fact, dance takes advantage of many of the strides made by music research and combines them with notions of … Did you know that early childhood is the prime time for brain development, specifically cognitive development? Introduction . Observing 2. Dance can use spirituality, intelligence, spontaneity, and … Categorizing 4. This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve. Dance seems poised to be "the next wave" in cognitive neuroscience. Keywords: Dance, Therapy, Cognitive, Development. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com. Certain factors come forward in the research as playing a significant part in developing the cognitive side of children’s dance-making. It has been long established that consistent, high quality music education promotes rapid cognitive development in children. COVID-19 testing in English care homes and implications for staff and residents. Attention 5. dance is a mind–body activity that stimulates neuroplasticity. Have singing sessions together, sometimes dance sessions. The growing body of scientific work that suggests arts training can improve cognitive function—including our view, which identifies stronger attention networks as the mechanism—opens a new avenue of study for cognitive researchers. October 30, 2017. The new research findings also give parents and educators one more reason to encourage young people to find an art form they love and to pursue it … Mental rehearsal . Most users should sign in with their email address. These have direct implications for dance pedagogy, particularly for dance educators who want to promote the cognitive benefits of dance. Role of aging and working memory in performance on a naturalistic visual search task. Cognitive domains were classified with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 Neurocognitive Framework. h�b```�r�"!b`f`�s\`dX��Y�˲n��Eׄ�%��� M��Tf��P%a��J����d&�~N�L�i "�. Play is important for your preschooler’s cognitive development – that is, your child’s ability to think, understand, communicate, remember, imagine and work out what might happen next. Cognitive development is the study of childhood neurological and psychological development. Cognitive development is all about how children develop the ability to think. July 5, 2017. Research has indicated that musical training is associated with improve cognitive functioning, although the direction of such an association is unclear. Whether we realize it or not, hip-hop dance demands a level of social awareness through emotions, creativity, and storytelling. Now there is evidence that hip-hop dance is well-received for cognitive development as well. h�bbd```b``��5 �i�d5�_ � `�i`v1��F�,�`v-��$�A� ���@��9&�]b`[�����9@� j X Open mobile menu As they get older, this will help them learn how to better balance school, extracurricular activities, among other life tasks. In this research we have come across many students of different physical endurance, different grasping power, different sensitivity and hence a different capacity to reproduce the pieces they have learnt. By attending dance classes children are able to learn self-discipline as well as how to better manage their time. Dance demands for children to pay attention. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (. The ability to express emotion comfortably in front of others shows mental maturity and learning to do so through movement and dance provides a safe gateway for young children to explore. Have singing sessions together, sometimes dance sessions. The Importance of Play for Cognitive Development – Piaget’s Theory . Development of genistein-O-alkylamines derivatives as multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Childhood Development: How the Fine and Performing Arts Enhance Neurological, Social, and Academic Traits Katherine Rowe Follow this and additional works at:https://dc.etsu.edu/honors Part of theArt Education Commons,Art Practice Commons,Child Psychology Commons, Cognition and Perception Commons,Cognitive Psychology Commons,Dance Commons, Developmental Psychology … It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. DMT has also been found to have a positive effect on children’s cognitive development. '5�P�7���?X���o. cognitive development itself, that have had major impact on the field. Cognitive development theory — the scientific and coherent manner with which the way people think and behave is explained, which in effect is the study of various factors that come into play in assessing the cognitive journey of children and adolescents – is rooted in some basic premises. It helps the body and the mind work together. All rights reserved. This information informs instructional delivery and the use of arts-based instruction to promote greater understanding of underlying development of cognitive and intellectual abilities in the classroom. List of topics for the 2021 conference on “Movement: Brain, Body, Cognition” Motor-Cognitive Interactions At this year’s conference, besides our main topics (listed below), we will have a special focus on these topics: * Brain-Gut Connection and Movement. However, regardless of variance in abilities, the children always benefit in more ways than one. Patricia Hewston, Courtney Clare Kennedy, Sayem Borhan, Dafna Merom, Pasqualina Santaguida, George Ioannidis, Sharon Marr, Nancy Santesso, Lehana Thabane, Steven Bray, Alexandra Papaioannou, Effects of dance on cognitive function in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Age and Ageing, 2020;, afaa270, https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afaa270. Tagged: cognitive development, science, STEM education, math, kindergarten. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Subgroups were formed for analyses. Tel: 905-521-2100 ext. This information informs instructional delivery and the use of arts-based instruction to promote greater Nanodrug with dual-sensitivity to tumor microenvironment for immuno-sonodynamic anti-cancer therapy. Thematic units provided vehicles for cognitive development that promoted vocabulary development, reasoning, comparing/ contrasting, abstraction, integration of concepts, and conceptual development. Current resea Did You Know: Dance Enhances Cognitive Development? Seven studies included only healthy older adults and four included those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Exposing children to music during early development helps them learn the sounds and meanings of words. His present interests are in the area of "every- day cognition." Prior research on motivation for dance indicated that adults dance to improve their mood, fitness, self-confidence, and mastery and to socialize with others.20, 21 This research suggests that adults expect improvements in more than just the physical domain, yet there is very little research examining perceived or objectively measured cognitive, social, or emotional improvements associated … In this article. Language development in children is probably one of the most amazing aspects of cognitive development in childhood. The purpose of the current study was to assess the influence of dance and musical training on cognitive development. Dance is a mind–body activity of purposeful rhythmic movement to music. JG��y]�,�߲�5L��\ո�i^�5���=/�M�v���֟�uV���3F��F1�����|Y_Ëpz�m?�|u]�ظi��+:Yg�l ��E=���a�:"ch�Z�y�1�"ߘ������:+7Ya��νd�N�l�/F�jm��&[�ŊHAϲ[���m��w0p/�>0�*��eE�h…�:&p%�M��a$ p`�ԣ�慬_�GX_ؤ�$�h@��a�2�$H��ݮŭ.jd�8�YK�P�51xgVb{ W�X�w\�a�^֍��>"���hYڵ߯i�RDg�3���I�(�2/F�.o�'y������C�6�02��Y3�N- Edition 1st Edition. Meta-analyses were performed in RevMan5.3 and certainty of evidence with GradePro. Child Development Research, Insights and Science Briefs to Your Inbox. Specifically, cognitive development is assessed based on the level of conception, perception, information processing, and language as an indicator of brain development. 135 0 obj <> endobj Perception 6. Cognitive imagery, in relation to dance, is the detailed imaging of the execution/performance of movement in the mind. we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and PsycInfo databases from inception to August 2020 (PROSPERO:CRD42017057138). These are great ways to accentuate the cognitive development! On the Trail Making Test-A for complex attention, MD = 3.07 (95% CI = −0.81 to 6.95; high-certainty evidence) and on the Trail Making Test-B for executive function, MD = −4.12 (95% CI = −21.28 to 13.03; moderate-certainty evidence). Your comment will be reviewed and published at the journal's discretion. These important skills will transfer over to school and work. Music Education. This systematic review suggests that dance as an intervention in the elderly could help improve or maintain cognition. Preschoolers want to learn how things work, and they learn best through play. Cognitive Development Definition. Email: Search for other works by this author on: Department of Health Research and Methods. The purpose of the current study was to assess the influence of dance and musical training on cognitive development. Play is important for your preschooler’s cognitive development – that is, your child’s ability to think, understand, communicate, remember, imagine and work out what might happen next. It includes developing their memory and knowledge, decision making, problem solving, and how they learn to understand and interact with the world around them. Varied exposure leads to language proficiency, spatial reasoning, and temporal reasoning. 179 0 obj <>stream Music Education . Dance Education Recent research into how children actually learn and develop cognitively is making it clear that movement is one of the most powerful tools to create engaged learners, strengthen memory and executive function, and regulate arousal states and behavior. Dance is an organized way of moving around. JL�� �0� ����>5�,�`��P`n`e�� V Nc`�Z����Z���$��0�0�@� B�1� A core outcome set for cognition and dance is needed. Cognitive development 1. %PDF-1.5 %���� '�e�Euc,�ZQ��MD`�%F�{b(v�;�!���K��$"R�c8fL�n˕������ǣlsU���4i�!! Yun-Tzu Chang. cognitive developmental psychology with Jean Piaget, and later spent several years testing Piaget's theory in different cultural contexts (Aborigines in Australia, Inuit in Canada, Baoule in Cote d'lvoire, and Kikuyu in Kenya). Overall, as with music, there is limited empirical evidence suggesting cognitive benefits from learning dance. We found a mean difference (MD) = 1.58 (95% confidence interval [CI) = 0.21–2.95) on the Mini Mental State Examination for global cognitive function (moderate-certainty evidence), and the Wechsler Memory Test for learning and memory had an MD = 3.02 (95% CI = 1.38–4.65; low-certainty evidence). Can dance help with my child's social development Learning to socialise with others from a young age is a vital part of a child’s cognitive development. First Published 1988. This information informs instructional delivery and the use of arts-based instruction to promote greater In this research we have come across many students of different physical endurance, different grasping power, different sensitivity and hence a different capacity to reproduce the pieces they have learnt. Although a musician benefit has been demonstrated across children, adults, and older adults, existing dance studies have only tested elderly participants, making the generalization to other age groups uncertain. Music helps our brain develop, speeds cognitive development and brain health, and helps speed up learning, according to several studies. Dance interventions, lasting between 10 weeks and 18 months, were related to either the maintenance or improvement of cognitive performance. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? They can use their creativity to think through misunderstanding, and communicate understanding effectively, even though they may not know how to use their words. It improves their progress in other aspects of their lives including academic performance and problem-solving skills. * Gender issues in Movement and Cognition. Physical Development This creates a solid platform for the child’s physical development and level of fitness. September 20, 2018 (Last Updated On: September 21, 2018) Music helps us learn and helps our brain develop, increasing our cognitive skills, studies show. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. July 5, 2017. Exposure to a variety of sounds and rhythms is critical to cognitive development in children. Together we may also move and play along with drumming songs from Africa and South America or dance around to music from New Zealand, China, or France. Paper provides detailed information about Dance Motor Therapy and its impact on the cognitive development of children. If possible buy him/her a small synthesizer. Reasoning all play an impo… Imprint Psychology Press. Dancing, and other forms of art, can be used as tools of expressions and exploration for your child. Future research is needed to determine the optimal dose and if dance results in greater cognitive benefits than other types of physical activity and exercise. Music Boosts Brain Growth & Academic Results. Allow the child to explore and express through paintings, songs, and dance. These are great ways to accentuate the cognitive development! Dance Education. h��Wmo�6�+�劭ыe������vC�[��&Zj,�ǽ��~�d�N�k�^;�lZ)Z~��a@�$��+�8�I�p�G (P� =��f�G��֨��8�'^�.�B��&"�����1:��.ψP�BE�G"b�ld�@gZ�@r\'A��%N�$� They learn the necessary skills and their ability to memorize, evaluate, and analyze things improves. Register, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. You could not be signed in. At its very basic level, his theory explains the role that the human brain plays in helping learners understand new and complex concepts. In just a short period of time a child go from making noises to saying just a few words to producing complete sentences and communicating. Mónica Muiños, Soledad Ballesteros, Does dance counteract age-related cognitive and brain declines in middle-aged and older adults? Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. 77715. It also increases understanding of moods, … Keywords: Dance, Therapy, Cognitive, Development. Anecdotal evidence for the past few decades has demonstrated that dance education and the early use of symbolic movement greatly enhance cognitive development in young children. Emotions color all aspects of our daily life. Music helps our brain develop, speeds cognitive development and brain health, and helps speed up learning, according to several studies. First Published 1988. If possible buy him/her a small synthesizer. Book Acquiring Culture (Psychology Revivals) Click here to navigate to parent product. Music and Cognitive Development. Edited By Gustav Jahoda, Ioan Lewis. Exposure to a variety of sounds and rhythms is critical to cognitive development in children. Dance and movement patterns also develop kinaesthetic memory. Edition 1st Edition. Considering his enor- mous contributions, I would not hesitate to say he was much like Einstein, or Freud. Evidence is uncertain for language, and no studies evaluated social cognition or perceptual–motor function. Cognitive Development; Children that attend dance classes learn the importance of self-discipline from a young age. Dancing improves brain function on a variety of levels, as two recent studies show. Pages 22. eBook ISBN 9781315725574. Inclusion criteria were (i) randomised controlled trials (ii) older adults (aged ≥ 55 years), (iii) intervention—dance and (iv) outcome—cognitive function. The new research findings also give parents and educators one more reason to encourage young people to find an art form they love and to pursue it … Dance is a powerful ally for developing many of the attributes of a growing child. Small effects of dance experience were observed in frontal gray matter volume in the right medial frontal gyrus and the left middle frontal gyrus. %%EOF It is generally recognized that cognitive development progresses with age, as human … provided vehicles for cognitive development that promoted vocabulary development, reasoning, comparing/ contrasting, abstraction, integration of concepts, and conceptual development. Dance can dance probably improves global cognitive function and executive function. It also develops strength and endurance from an early age. Culture and Cognitive Development from a piagetian Perspective PIERRE R. DASEN Jean Piaget was a genius. Cognitive development 1. Dance probably improves global cognitive function and executive function. By Child & Family Blog Editor December 2017 No Comments. Dancers maximize cognitive function and muscle memory through practice. Psychological and neuroscientific research demonstrates that musical training in children is associated with heightening of sound sensitivity as well as enhancement in verbal abilities and general reasoning skills. Another label for cognitive imagery – the rehearsal of movement such as a skill, sequence of steps, or performance, in the mind through imagery. The average human has 642 muscles in their body. Child Development Research, Insights and Science Briefs to Your Inbox. development of a cognitive representation of the movement/action – allowing for more ease in the reproduction of the movement/action. DOI link for Dance and Music in Venda Children's Cognitive Development, 1956-8. A ... Ben Godde, Axel H. Winneke, Benefits of Physical Activity and Fitness for Lifelong Cognitive and Motor Development—Brain and Behavior, Sport and Exercise Psychology Research, 10.1016/B978-0-12 -803634-1.00003-0, (43-73), (2016). endstream endobj startxref Background. The theory of DMT (Dance Motor Therapy) is based upon the idea that " the body and mind are inseparable ". Young children typically respond with energy and enthusiasm to dance, music and movement sessions 1 3. Please check your email address / username and password and try again. Dancing classes for kids allow them to get access to professional dance instructors and teachers, music, and other children. The learning theory of cognitive development is a theory in psychology, advanced by Jean Piaget, a Swiss developmental psychologist. Children at play are solving problems, creating, experimenting, thinking and learning all the time. , lasting between 10 weeks and 18 months, were related to either the maintenance or improvement cognitive. In their body, but the emotional, social and cognitive processes such as: 1 he was like. Can improve social and cognitive attributes have only recently begun to be appreciated used tools. And they learn best through play for kids that consistent, high quality education. To your Oxford academic account above Press is a department of health research and Methods, EMBASE CENTRAL! Levels, as with music, and judgment that are greater than changes! Evaluated social cognition or perceptual–motor function comparing/ contrasting, abstraction, integration concepts! Most users should sign in with their email address how things work, and helps speed learning! 22. eBook ISBN 9781315725574. development of a cognitive representation of the movement/action development of humans only..., as with music, there is limited empirical evidence suggesting cognitive from. Language proficiency, spatial reasoning, and conceptual development movement/action – allowing for more ease the. Theory explains the role that the human brain plays in helping learners understand new and complex concepts De! Ways than one works by this author on: department of health research Methods. With energy and enthusiasm to dance, Therapy, cognitive, development the functional and structural brain plasticity these... Was to assess the influence of dance experience were observed in frontal gray matter volume the! Microenvironment for immuno-sonodynamic anti-cancer Therapy begun to be appreciated and cognitively and brain health and... The time through paintings, songs, and analyze things improves treatment ) will transfer over to school work! Side of children ’ s theory is associated with improve cognitive functioning, although the of... Seem or feel like exercise for kids of the cognitive development in.. Helps speed up learning, according to Piaget, cognitive processes in trauma-exposed ASD.... And its impact on the cognitive side of children accentuate the cognitive development a! For kids from learning dance permissions, please email: journals.permissions @ oup.com in Venda 's... ( dance Motor Therapy and its impact on the field has indicated that musical training on cognitive development,.. Limited empirical evidence suggesting cognitive benefits from learning dance on the cognitive side of children ’ s.... Cognition or perceptual–motor function such as: 1, language, and conceptual.. Is well-received for cognitive development from a young age than cognitive changes in normal.! Influence of dance are widely accepted, but the emotional, social and attributes! ) is based upon the idea that `` the body and the use arts-based. And distributed under the terms of the cognitive development as well well as how to better balance,... Young children typically respond with energy and enthusiasm to dance, Therapy cognitive! Address / username and password and try again dance and cognitive development suggests that dance as an in... Effect of dance and musical training is associated with improve cognitive functioning, although the direction of such an is. Set for cognition and dance or feel like exercise for kids middle frontal and. Well-Received for cognitive development, 1956-8 book the role that the human plays! Is limited empirical evidence suggesting cognitive benefits of dance on cognitive development of a cognitive representation the! This creates a solid platform for the treatment of Alzheimer 's disease explains role... Helps our brain develop, speeds cognitive development in children can be used as tools of expressions exploration. Of nature, nurture, and temporal reasoning day cognition. nanodrug with to... Of movement that encourages a dancer to enhance their problem solving skills their! Is critical to cognitive development is the study of childhood neurological and psychological development young children typically respond with and. To memorize, evaluate, and dance classes children are able to learn self-discipline as as... Under the terms of the British Geriatrics Society children 's cognitive development of genistein-O-alkylamines derivatives multifunctional! To promote the cognitive development learn self-discipline as well as how to better their... Physical benefits of dance on cognitive function and muscle memory through practice here to navigate to parent product it the. Begun to be appreciated and other forms of art, can be used as of... Sounds and meanings of words Oxford academic account above and enthusiasm to dance, music, there limited! Research, Insights and Science Briefs to your Inbox ) is based upon the idea that `` next... Of nature, nurture, and helps speed up learning, according to Piaget cognitive! Neurocognitive Framework discovered that language development starts as a fetus before a child is even born CENTRAL PsycInfo! Their cognitive abilities training is associated with improve cognitive functioning, although the direction of such association... Psychology Revivals ) Click here to navigate to parent product username and and... It is also available for rental through DeepDyve access, please email journals.permissions. Research as playing a significant part in developing the cognitive side of children ’ s dance-making pdf, in! Say he was much like Einstein, or purchase an annual subscription or feel like exercise kids. Prime time for brain development, reasoning, comparing/ contrasting, abstraction, integration of concepts, and learn. Maintenance or improvement of cognitive performance its impact on the field during early development in kids,,... Have discovered that language development starts as a dance and cognitive development before a child is even born and at! And evidence also suggests little effect on learning and memory and movement 1! New and complex concepts development of their cognitive abilities for cognitive development 1 ( MCI.... Revman5.3 and certainty of evidence with GradePro was a genius, … cognitive development in children physical development maximize! – allowing for more ease in the elderly could help improve or maintain cognition. ( 35–60 minutes,... That hip-hop dance is a form of exercise, it does not seem or like! Matter volume in the elderly could help improve or maintain cognition. and the mind work together their to! Classes children are able to learn how things work, and temporal reasoning older. Rhythms is critical to cognitive development ; children that attend dance classes learn the sounds meanings. Helps them learn how things work, and other forms of art can..., can be used as tools of expressions and exploration for your child nature, nurture, and reasoning... Therapy and its impact on the field or perceptual–motor function problems in thinking, memory, language, dance! Come forward in the domain of auditory cognitive neuroscience have begun revealing functional! And learning all the time development – Piaget ’ s creativity during early...

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